Month: November 2016

Extend your Clean Agent System

Clean Agent Systems are a great way to protect your sensitive equipment and assets. It’s effective fire suppression with no water, residue or oily deposits. Now, you can extend your clean agent system by protecting several enclosed spaces from a single agent supply.

Storing clean agent tanks within your IT room can cause problems including a lack of floor space for the valuable material you need to protect. Your protected space should be reserved for the expensive assets and computer equipment for which the room is designed, not your fire suppression equipment. Most IT rooms are not designed with a large (up to 1,500 lbs) clean agent tank in mind – not the floor space, aisle size, or door width. While some property owners will build the room around the tank, this is a short-term solution.

If your clean agent system activates, your tanks will need to be removed from the room and sent to a recharging facility to be refilled with the suppression agent. If you room is modified or expanded, you may need to send your tanks to have the amount of agent increased or add tanks to your system. With a room built around the large tanks, you now have major construction in your plans which could have been avoided.

With a 725 psi clean agent system you can store your tanks in a closet, basement or mechanical room. These clean agent systems have the capability of a longer piping network which allows for tanks to be moved further from the protected area. The new “Multi-Zone” technology also allows you to protect several enclosures with a single agent supply. This design flexibility can make clean agent systems a better solution for your facility and provide more cost effective solutions.

For more in-depth information about the advantages of 725 psi clean agent systems, check out A1’s Lunch & Learns for architects and engineers.

A1 is a leading expert on the latest technology in life safety. To find out more information or to ask a question, click here or call us at 1-800-859-6198.

Jack Menke
Jack Menke

What is Swift Technology?

SWIFT stands for Smart Wireless Integrated Fire Technology. SWIFT systems provide a flexible, reliable solution for many applications that are problematic for traditional wired devices. SWIFT systems are a commercial wireless fire detection system using a robust, self-healing mesh technology. SWIFT sensors detect fire, just like their wired counterparts, while providing installation flexibility in a wireless format. This wireless technology is available for fire alarm control panels, voice evacuation panels, emergency communications systems, advanced detection, gas and flame detection, and notification appliances.

Traditional wired systems can be costly to install in concrete walls and ceilings, and with buried wires, they can also be obtrusive in surface mount conduit, or even dangerous if they are being installed in construction where asbestos is present. In addition, wireless devices are ideal for use in temporary structures such as portable classrooms and traveling exhibits. SWIFT systems are wireless, which make these potential problems obsolete. The systems can use any combination of modules, smoke and/or heat detectors.

SWIFT systems use a mesh network for communication where there is a child-parent relationship between devices, so that each device has two parents. This provides a second path for communication, to be used as a back-up in the event that one device can no longer operate for any reason. This back-up allows for the rest of the devices to still directly communicate with each other, or through one or more intermediate devices, even if one device becomes inoperable. The devices are also designed to find the strongest signal path for each device. SWIFT technology utilizes frequency hopping to prevent outside interference, whether intentional or accidental, to maintain your system security.swift mesh network

In addition, both wired and wireless devices can be present on the same fire alarm control panel, providing an integrated wired-wireless solution for increased installation potential. A system can have up to 50 devices per gateway, in any combination of detectors and modules. However, each device uses one address on the panel, so address capacity cannot exceed the panel limits.

Device spacing for wireless technology follows the NFPA guidelines. If signal strength is low, then an additional module or detector can be installed that will act as a repeater. Generally, it is better to use a module as a repeater, since detectors require additional maintenance.

For more in-depth information about this topic, check out A1’s Lunch & Learns for architects and engineers.

A1 is a leading expert on the latest technology in life safety. To find out more information or to ask a question, click here or call us at 1-800-859-6198.

Jack Menke
Jack Menke

Selecting Speakers for a Mass Notification System

A Mass Notification System (MNS) is a platform used to deliver a message to a group of people. This is a crucial aspect of a Life Safety system. When an emergency occurs, being able to deliver precise, clear instructions to those affected can make the difference between life and death.

Standards and Codes regarding Emergency Voice/Alarm Communication Systems

NFPA 72F is the Standard for the Installation, Maintenance and Use of Emergency Voice/Alarm Communication Systems. This Standard from NFPA is a short description of requirements for Voice/Alarm Signaling Service and Two-Way Telephone Communication Service. A more in-depth Standard is from the 2010 edition of the National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code, Chapter 24. This Code provides a more thorough review of Emergency Communications Systems including many types of both one-way and two-way emergency communications systems, system arrangement and performance.

Speakers in MNS

Traditional MNS include one-way message delivery through email, text messages or reverse 911 calling mechanisms. PA systems and speakers are also part of an MNS. When you are delivering an audio message in the time of an emergency, it is imperative that your message is clear and understood by all affected. Selecting the best speaker system for MNS includes understanding the size of the area you need covered, if the area includes indoor and/or outdoor space, acoustics of the space, any background or interfering noise, speaker sensitivity, and directionality and layout of speakers.

While you evaluate the requirements that will be put on your MNS and speaker equipment, you must also take into account the desires of the system owner/operator, all operational goals for the equipment, and cost saving objectives for the owner.

Intelligibility Ratings of Speakers

The main operational goal for any speaker system is to ensure intelligible communications through the system. Although there is no Code or Standard set to require a certain level of speaker intelligibility, it does provide a new Annex D, entitled Speech Intelligibility, that treats the subject of measuring intelligibility levels in detail. In most designs of typical sound and communications systems, stakeholders measure intelligibility by whether or not the designers, installers, authorities having jurisdiction, and occupants can understand the messages. To help with this decision, speakers are rated on a speech transmission index. This is a complex formula which takes into account some physical characteristics of a transmission channel and expresses the ability of the channel successfully transmit syllables, words and sentences in a comprehensible manner for listeners. STI ranges from 0 for bad, to 1 for excellent.

How Hyperspike Speakers rate

Hyperspike speakers utilize some of the newest audio technology. These speakers employ a new and efficient design to minimize the number of speakers required over a large area. The audio output of the speakers has an STI rating between .85 and 1.0; which means it has some of the highest levels of intelligibility for any MNS speakers. In addition, these speakers are among the lightest and smallest in physical size which allows them to be mounted in almost any place both outdoor and indoor.

Options from Hyperspike:

Lightweight High Power Speaker Arrays (HPSA)

Electronic outdoor audible notification units function on AC-power with battery backup to provide continuous 24/7 emergency operation for the life of the battery – one of the longest running uptimes available. Loudspeakers are typically installed on a structure or pole, and are available in a number of configurations. Units can serve areas measured in radial miles. Models come in architecturally neutral beige or gray.

Lightweight Medium Power Speaker Arrays (MPSA)

Electronic audible notification solutions that are ideal for smaller outdoor applications as well as large or very loud indoor areas. Loudspeakers are available in a number of configurations.

Portable Loudspeaker System

Self-amplified, portable loudspeaker can be hand-held or mounted on a tripod, truck or other apparatus. It features Say-Then-Play (STP) microphone system that disperses clear audio without feedback or disorienting echoes.

For more in-depth information about this topic, check out A1’s Lunch & Learns for architects and engineers.

A1 is a leading expert on the latest technology in life safety. To find out more information or to ask a question, click here or call us at 1-800-859-6198.

Jack Menke
Jack Menke

Requirements for Low Frequency Audible Alarms

Statistics show that smoke detectors and fire alarm systems save lives. As more homes and businesses have smoke alarm and fire alarm systems, the number of lives lost in fires has decreased. 520 Hz sounders are the next technological step in saving lives. 520 Hz signaling, also known as low frequency signaling, describes an audible warning signal that meets the UL standard for a 520 Hz square wave tone.

Code update for Low Frequency Sounders

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is devoted to eliminating death, injury, property and economic loss due to fire, electrical and related hazards. As such, the NFPA establishes standards and codes for fire safety, the following requirements are from the 2010/2013 Editions of NFPA 72 that went into effect on January 1, 2014. Real-world challenges and studies led to the development of these specific low-frequency requirements located in Chapters 18 and 29 of NFPA 72, and related NFPA 720 requirements and ANSI/UL standards.

Code Updates mean Legal requirements in some states

Ohio and Kentucky have statewide adoption of the low-frequency sounder codes. While Indiana has not currently adopted the codes into their laws, preventing the loss of life during a fire is reason enough to utilize low-frequency sounders in fire alarms. Compliance is only part of the picture. As minimum requirements, codes and laws don’t take into account the nuances of good system design. Other considerations that must be taken into account with a life safety design include best practices, commercial viability, customer considerations and even compatibility. The primary objective for life safety systems is to keep building occupants safe. Because life safety systems must also be designed in an effective manner that is not cost prohibitive, it is important to understand the reasoning behind codes and laws. Only with this understanding can decisions be made that act in the best interests of building owners, designers, and occupants.

Why the new requirements?

Low frequency audible alarms (520Hz) have high waking effectiveness for individuals who are hard of hearing, middle-aged to elderly, or school-age children. In fact, 520 Hz square wave signal is the most effective in waking all individuals. Because of this, the requirements in NFPA codes are for low-frequency sounders in all areas intended for sleeping. This requirement is only for new construction or significant renovations, so there is no need to retrofit existing installations. The sounders are for notification appliances connected to and controlled by a fire alarm or emergency communications system.

Are any facilities exempt from this requirement?

Healthcare settings, correctional/detention facilities, and other facilities where private mode signaling is employed and where staff are trained to alert and evacuate occupants according to established protocols are exempt from the low frequency sounder requirements. In addition, these requirements do not apply to dwelling unit life safety systems as single- and multiple-station alarms and household fire alarm systems have requirements outlined in Chapter 29 of NFPA 72. You should always check with your AHJ for local requirements for your facility.

Design Considerations and Challenges

Some life safety systems may need special design consideration to accommodate low frequency notification. Power supplies, amplifiers, audio source units, horns, sounders, and speakers all play a part in achieving code-compliant 520 Hz signaling. The ease or difficulty with which the new requirements are deployed depends on the system and the manufacturer. Even if it’s as simple as specifying different horns or speakers for sleeping areas, there remains the challenge among life safety designers and building owners of using these signals with the greatest life-saving effect and in compliance with local, state, and national codes.

For more in-depth information about this topic, check out A1’s Lunch & Learns for architects and engineers.

A1 is a leading expert on the latest technology in life safety. To find out more information or to ask a question, click here or call us at 1-800-859-6198.

Jack Menke
Jack Menke

Server Room Fire Protection Options

You already know that you do not want a water based sprinkler system in your IT room where the water can harm your expensive electronics. Clean Agent systems are a great option for fire protection in server rooms. You can learn more about using a Clean Agent system in your server room here.  Another option for server room fire protection is an aerosol based system called Stat-X. We will outline here the differences between Clean Agent Systems and Stat-X systems to help you determine which option would work best for you.

What components make up the Clean Agent System and Stat-X System?

To understand the differences outlined below, it is important to understand what elements make up the two systems. A Clean Agent System utilizes tanks of up to 1,500 lbs. each and fixed piping to distribute the chemical agent into the server room from the tanks. This system has an independent agent release alarm panel which is connected to your building’s fire alarm panel.

A Stat-X system consists of aerosol canisters/generators ranging from 30 to 2,500 grams, which can be heat activated or connected to an independent agent release alarm panel (which connects to your building’s fire alarm panel). The Stat-X generators hold the Stat-X compound, coolant, and have exit ports on the bottom meaning there is no need for any piping.

Both systems would include components for fire detection, a manual pull station, and alarm components such as horns and strobes.

Room Alterations

As your business grows, so will your server room. Eventually, it may be necessary to reconfigure your space or add on. When that happens, your Life Safety Partner will need to evaluate and reconfigure your fire suppression system to fit the new layout of your server room.

If your Clean Agent tanks are stored in the IT room, the tanks may need to be removed during construction and put back when the construction is complete. If you are expanding the space, you will either need more agent in your current tank(s), which includes shipping the tanks to refilling facilities and awaiting their return, or you may have to get additional tanks. These changes will definitely mean you need to modify your piping, which could include adding additional piping to the current configuration but could also mean replacing your existing piping with a larger size. With the space changes, it is also likely you will need to relocate or extend your detection devices which will include reinstalling or adding items. It’s possible that your space change will require you to start your clean agent system design from scratch. During this time, your system will not be functioning to protect the space.

With a Stat-X system, you may also need to relocate or extend your detection system, which can include reinstalling or adding detection system components. Room alterations will also require you to relocate or extend the flexible releasing circuit, reinstall or add new Stat-X generators. The main differences here are that your system can remain operational throughout the remodel, there is no piping to reconfigure, and no large tanks to add to your system or send for refill.

Preparing a Room for Use

A Clean Agent System must have a sealed room to maintain the gas at certain levels in order to put out the fire and prevent it from reigniting. Learn more on how a room is constructed and tested in order to guarantee correct room pressurization for a Clean Agent System.

Stat-X systems operate at normal room pressurization. This means there is no need to seal the room or test the room’s pressurization capability each year.

Effectiveness of Fire Suppression Method  fire-triangle

Clean Agent Suppression works by cooling the fire, removing the heat component of the fire triangle. The source of fire is still present which puts you at risk for a reflash, unless you have a switch that shuts down all power to your server room (which helps with the fire source but can damage your servers). Clean Agent chemicals are designed to maintain fire suppression for 10 minutes, before it dissipates you should have trained personnel respond to the location to watch for any reflash that may occur.

Instead of cooling or displacing oxygen, Stat-X systems break up the fire’s chemical reaction by interacting with the free radicals that fuel the growth of the fire. The chemical agents in Stat-X are 10 times more effective in terms of weight of agent per volume to extinguish the same flammable liquid fire. Also, Stat-X chemical agents can stay suspended in room for hours to prevent reignition, removing the danger of reflash for much longer than 10 minutes.

Environmental Safety

There are different clean agent chemicals, one of the most commonly used agents is FM 200. Both FM 200 and Stat-X chemicals are included in the US EPA’s SNAP list (Significant New Alternatives Policy), which lists acceptable halon alternatives. However, FM 200 has a 4300 GWP/36.5 year atmospheric lifetime, while Stat-X is more environmentally friendly with zero ozone and global warming potential.

Physical Requirements

Space in your server room should be reserved for your valuable electronic equipment. A Clean Agent System does have the capability to store the agent tanks outside of your server room; however, it does present the possibility for problems with your system as there is now piping for your agent outside of the room where the agent would be required to suppress a fire. (Click here for more information about the pros and cons of storing clean agent tanks outside of your server room.)

The Stat-X generators must be in the server room but they are wall mounted and occupy minimal space, saving your server room space for electronics.

A1 is a leading expert on the latest technology in life safety. To find out more information or to ask a question, click here or call us at 1-800-859-6198.

Jack Menke
Jack Menke

Selecting a Service Company

Top 4 things you should ask when selecting a service company
(or, to determine if you have the best service company for you)


  1. How many years of experience does your service team have?

You can learn two things from finding out the years of experience a service team has: 1. How much collective knowledge do they have? Which is very important in ensuring they can address a wide range of issues with Life Safety systems. 2. How many service technicians do they have available? With more technicians available to answer calls, you are more likely to get a quick response to a service call from a knowledgeable technician. The knowledge and number of technicians available are a valuable asset for you. A small number of technicians might be a flag as a cause for concern in the level of service available.

  1. What is the average response time between a service call/request and the technician arriving?

Customer service. Any successful business knows how important this is. You should expect a high level of customer service from your Life Safety Partner. When an alarm sounds, a system is activated, or a problem arises you need a quick response to get the issue addressed in order to keep your business running smoothly.

Ask what the average response time is for a service call to be addressed. Ideally, your Partner is able to dispatch service technicians immediately for all calls. If there are multiple calls at once, then priority should be assigned based on the severity of the situation and location. If there is a queue, your Life Safety Partner should be contacting you when a service technician is on the way to your facility.

  1. Do you have an Answering Service for emergencies?

There is no way to schedule emergencies to occur between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. It is very important that you are able to speak with a real person from your Life Safety Partner organization at any time, day or night. While an answering service will give you a number to call when something goes wrong outside of business hours, it is much better to speak with someone from your Life Safety Partner company. The best solution is to have a Life Safety Partner that has an emergency line which is always answered by a Life Safety Professional. This will ensure that you are able to get help when you need it most, regardless of whether or not it is within regular business hours.

  1. Ask yourself, when you speak with someone at your service company (or potential service company), do they sound interested in helping you?

Fire and Life Safety are serious concerns, and you want to select a Partner who is passionate about working with you and ensuring your people and assets stay protected.

A1 is a leading expert on the latest technology in life safety. To find out more information or to ask a question, click here or call us at 1-800-859-6198.

Melodie Yarrow
Melodie Yarrow

Why have an AED in your workplace?

Without early CPR and the use of an Automated External Defibrillator, only about 2.5% of sudden cardiac arrest victims survive. But the initiation of early CPR and AED use within minutes, can raise a victim’s chance of survival to almost 80%.

Sudden cardiac arrest can happen at any time, to anyone, of any age. When someone experiences sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), minutes count. A person in SCA is not breathing and their heart has stopped. You can immediately perform CPR to keep the person’s brain and heart alive while waiting for professional, medical help. In addition to performing CPR, using an AED (Automated External Defibrillator) can give the person the best possible chance to survive.

AEDs are small portable devices which can deliver an electric shock to a person’s heart. AEDs are easy to use, you simply turn it on and place the electrode pads on the individual as shown in images on the pads. The AED will monitor the individual’s heart rate and, if necessary, provide an electrical shock. This shock can help to stop abnormal electrical impulses in the heart and allow it to return to normal beating rhythm. This is fully automated, taking the responsibility away from the AED user. Because the AED is programmed to make this determination without user input, your employees can have confidence that utilizing the AED is the correct decision in a medical emergency.

What to look for when selecting an AED?

When selecting an AED for your office, make sure your AED is fully automated in determining and delivering an electric shock. Another feature you should look for is clear communication from the device, it is best when AEDs utilize audio communication for instructions and warning for when the victim is about to be given a shock. You should also ask about the compatibility of your AED electrodes with those utilized by EMTs. Selecting an AED that is compatible with professional AEDs allows professionals to disconnect your device, connect their own, and continue on with life-saving procedures.

Some AED providers can also offer AED cabinet monitoring. This allows an alert to be sent to management and first responders if your AED cabinet is opened – indicating that the AED is needed for an emergency and medical attention is needed. Get first responders on the way faster with offsite monitoring of your AED cabinet.

Once you have selected your AED, make sure to provide training for your staff so that they are comfortable using the device in an emergency. Click here for an overview of A1’s CPR & AED Training class.

A1 is a leading expert on the latest technology in life safety. To find out more information or to ask a question, click here or call us at 1-800-859-6198.

Greg Lane
Greg Lane

Going Wireless: when owners should tap fire protection without wires

Smoke detectors can be wired or wireless, and using wireless opens up an entirely new concept of fire protection to building owners. Wireless addressable devices provide secure, reliable communication to the Fire Alarm Control Panel across a network and are ideal for applications where it is costly, obtrusive, or possibly dangerous to use traditional wired devices.

A wireless system is configured much like wired detectors in terms of installation and integration – but without the wire. The components are the same: a control panel, detectors, command center, power supplies, and other components of a complete system.

For example, in cases where areas of a building are difficult or impossible to wire, visually sensitive, or have restricted access, wireless sensors provide an efficient, reliable solution. The devices communicate via a proprietary wireless mesh protocol to communicate with the fire alarm system by means of a Wireless Gateway.

Wireless devices in a network develop what’s sometimes called “parent-child” communication links with other devices in the mesh, so that a message originating from a remote device “hops” to the closest parent device, and then to successive parent devices until the message reaches the gateway. Alternate paths are also identified and supervised by the protocol providing approved Class A wireless communication. If a device does not have an established communication path with adequate signal strength, an additional device such as a wireless module may be installed in between so that it will act as a repeater.

In one recent installation, for example, the owner was skeptical of all the wiring options when wireless was suggested. According to the installer, the owner selected wireless devices so that the extensive woodwork in that facility would be unaltered. In addition to respecting the wood design of the facility, the wireless system inadvertently also solved an ongoing issue: continuous repair required as pests chewed through the wiring. The wireless devices ensured the integrity of the system by making sure that no creature can chew through the wire.

Whether choosing wired, wireless or a combination of both, owners now have more options for fire protection than ever before. Building owners and life safety system installers should be aware of and keep all of these options in mind when planning their next fire system installation.

For more in-depth information about this topic, check out A1’s Lunch & Learns for architects and engineers.

Thank you to A1 Partner, Honeywell, for this blog contribution.


Why you should be specifying cell dialers

Plain old telephone service (POTS) lines have served us well but are quickly coming to an end. As this technology becomes obsolete, communication systems that once relied on it – including alarm monitoring – are looking to cellular service as a replacement. There are many benefits to specifying cell dialers in your projects.

The end of analog lines is near. In December of 2009, AT&T reported to the FCC that is was seeing ways of phasing out ‘Relics of a By-Gone Era.’ Now, seven years later, analog lines have been replaced with digital or cellular devices for most industries. Alarm panels are one of the few remaining devices that regularly rely on analog lines for monitoring. Why though, are we allowing a vital part of our security and life safety systems to rely on outmoded technology? You should be specifying the latest proven technology, not outdated technology.

It’s not just that analog lines are outmoded, the replacement – cellular service – is significantly better. Single path cell systems report into the central station every 5 minutes, versus every 24 hours for a system connected via POTS lines. This dramatically increases the ability of the central monitoring station to discover a problem with the fire protection system. Consider this, if a system is on POTS lines it might check in at 2:00 a.m. If the system then experiences a problem and shuts down at 2:04 a.m., the central monitoring station will not know there is a problem until 2:00 a.m. the next morning. That’s almost a full 24 hours without protection!  However, if the system is on a cellular monitoring service the problem will be discovered at 2:05 a.m., allowing the Life Safety provider to notify property management almost immediately of a problem and decrease system downtime.

For more in-depth information about this topic, check out A1’s Lunch & Learns for architects and engineers.

A1 is a leading expert on the latest technology in life safety. To find out more information or to ask a question, click here or call us at 1-800-859-6198.

Greg Lane

Protect your equipment without a room-wide system

Whether it is a server, network, or telecommunications equipment, electronics are valuable to your business and protecting them from fire damage is important for ensuring your business can continue without interruption. A room-wide fire protection system is not always necessary, if you have your equipment housed in a cabinet it is possible to have local application fire protection.

From 2006 to 2010, there were an estimated 209 reported U.S. structure fires per year that started in electronic equipment rooms. According to the National Archives & Records Administration in Washington, 93% of companies that lost their data center for 10 days or more due to a disaster filed for bankruptcy within one year of the disaster.

In-rack fire detection and suppression units are available to protect electronics that are housed in a fully-enclosed cabinet. These systems are designed to fit in the rack, usually of a 19” cabinet and include a smoke aspiration system with two sensors, an agent container with release mechanism and discharge nozzles, a power supply and emergency back-up power supply.

local application fire protection
An in-rack extinguishing system can protect multiple cabinets with one sampling pipe which activates separate extinguishing devices.

Room-wide systems such as a clean agent system or Stat-X system, work really well for protecting server rooms and the equipment kept there. However, if you have an equipment cabinet stored outside of your server room then these systems are probably more than you need to protect that space. An in-rack system will protect your equipment within the cabinet, putting the fire suppression system as close to the critical equipment as possible, without the higher expense of a room-wide system.

Another benefit of in-rack systems, is that they can detect and suppress deep-seated fires within the equipment cabinet. Electronics and IT racks can experience smoldering fires deep within the equipment. A room-wide system would probably not be able to detect this fire in the incipient stages, whereas an in-rack system can detect the fire early on and also has the ability to flood the cabinet with the suppression agent and extinguish the fire. In a room-wide system it can be difficult for the chemical agent to disperse within the IT equipment sufficiently to suppress a deep-seated fire within the equipment.

In-rack suppression systems are made with a Clean Agent chemical. This means there is no damage to your electronics and no clean-up after use. The system operates in two states – pre-alarm and fire alarm. On pre-alarm, power circuits can be switched off simultaneously with the alarm signal, isolating supporting electrical energy. On fire alarm, the extinguishing system is activated and the extinguishing agent vaporizes at the nozzle and is distributed throughout the cabinet to rapidly extinguish the fire. Separate outputs are available to activate external audible or visual alarms, as well as outputs for external power shut downs. The systems also have a control panel with display, fault and status LEDs and operating keys. Various models of in-rack systems are available, some of which can be used together to protect up to five combined cabinets.

In-rack fire suppression systems offer a highly sensitive smoke detection and fire extinguishing system for your electronic cabinets. For more in-depth information about this topic, check out A1’s Lunch & Learns for architects and engineers.

A1 is a leading expert on the latest technology in life safety. To find out more information or to ask a question, click here or call us at 1-800-859-6198.

Jack Menke
Jack Menke